Confirmation, also known as confermatio, is a recognized sacrament of the Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican churches.
It is also a rite practiced in the Protestant church, despite not being a religious sacrament.
In the East, the sacrament of confirmation is given with baptism by the priest. In the West, however, there are two celebrations, and the second, that of Confirmation, is the prerogative of the Bishop. It is in fact the bishop who, with the imposition of hands and the anointing made with the sacred chrism on the forehead, imparts the sacrament.
In order to receive confirmation, the baptized person needs sufficient preparation and the state of grace; in the Latin Church, he or she must have reached the age of discretion and, in the rite, must be accompanied by his or her godfather or godmother.

It is a milestone in the life of every Christian, confirming and strengthening the religious journey of the recipient.

Confirmation constitutes the whole of the "sacraments of Christian initiation," the unity of which must be safeguarded, being the confirmation of baptismal grace.
The Bible nowhere mentions the term confirmation or confematio, but the practice refers to the sacred scriptures of Pentecost:
"When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place. 2 Suddenly a sound like the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting. 3 They saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them. 4 All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues[a] as the Spirit enabled them."
[Acts of the Apostles 2:1-11]

It is, therefore, the sacrament that enables the faithful to receive the Holy Spirit into their hearts and receive His seven gifts: wisdom, intellect, counsel, fortitude, science, piety and fear of God.

The term confirmation is of recent formation and denotes in part the gesture of anointing and in part the material used to perform the gesture, chrism (derived from the Greek χρῖσμα, then χρίσμα and meaning ointment or anointing).
This is the most important of the oils, which the bishop consecrates each year on Maundy Thursday. It is a composition of olive oil mixed with fragrant aromas and is used in both the baptismal sacrament and the sacrament of ordination.
During confirmation, the bishop with chrism draws a cross on the forehead of the confirmed person, and through the anointing the confirmed person receives the seal of the Holy Spirit so that he or she may witness Christ and His Gospel during his or her life.
Oil has many meanings: it is a sign of abundance, it purifies, it makes one agile (which is why wrestlers and athletes are doused with this ointment) it is a sign of healing, in fact it cures bruises and sores, it is an element of beauty and health food.
In confirmation, the oil represents abundant grace, which is poured into the Christian's soul to confirm him or her in the faith.
It used to be that the newly confirmed received a light slap from the bishop as a reminder of his being a Christian, thus also ready to suffer for the faith.
Slapping is no longer prescribed by the current rite.
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